Malaysia, Perlis, Kedah, Penang and Perak (2014)

Malaysia, 2014
Perlis, Kedah, Penang, Perak
Principal Investigator
Mohamad Aziz Salowi
Trainer
Hans Limburg
Sample size
2500
Response rate
96.7%
RAAB version
RAAB6
Diabetic retinopathy
No
Disability module
No

Vision impairment

Prevalence (age-sex adjusted)

Female
Male
Total
Extrapolated magnitude
%
95% CI
Extrapolated magnitude
%
95% CI
Extrapolated magnitude
%
95% CI
Blind
13 826
1.9
1.1 - 2.7
7 554
1.1
0.5 - 1.7
21 380
1.5
1.0 - 2.0
Severe
10 574
1.4
0.8 - 2.1
7 554
1.1
0.5 - 1.7
18 128
1.3
0.8 - 1.7
Moderate
49 022
6.7
5.0 - 8.3
39 367
5.6
4.0 - 7.3
88 389
6.2
4.9 - 7.4
Mild
79 753
10.8
8.7 - 13.0
56 947
8.2
6.1 - 10.2
136 700
9.5
7.8 - 11.3

Cataract

Operable cataract prevalence (age-sex adjusted)

Female
Male
Total
Extrapolated magnitude
%
95% CI
Extrapolated magnitude
%
95% CI
Extrapolated magnitude
%
95% CI
<3/60
7 804
1.1
0.5 - 1.7
4 187
0.6
0.1 - 1.1
11 990
0.8
0.4 - 1.3
<6/60
10 276
1.4
0.8 - 2.0
6 144
0.9
0.3 - 1.4
16 419
1.1
0.7 - 1.6
<6/18
28 203
3.8
2.9 - 4.7
23 144
3.3
2.1 - 4.5
51 347
3.6
2.8 - 4.4
<6/12
74 689
10.2
8.3 - 12.0
54 884
7.9
5.9 - 9.8
129 573
9.0
7.5 - 10.6

Cataract surgical coverage (CSC) (age-sex adjusted)

Female
Male
Total
%
95% CI
%
95% CI
%
95% CI
CSC<3/60
-
88.7
82.5 - 94.9
-
90.6
84.2 - 84.2
-
89.5
83.9 - 93.5
CSC<6/60
-
86.1
80.2 - 91.9
-
87.1
80.1 - 94.1
-
86.5
81.1 - 91.0
CSC<6/18
-
70.8
63.9 - 77.6
-
66.4
57.6 - 75.3
-
69.0
64.5 - 77.0
CSC<6/12
-
49.6
42.2 - 57.1
-
48.4
40.0 - 56.9
-
49.1
43.3 - 55.9

Effective cataract surgical coverage (eCSC) (age-sex adjusted)

The RAAB research team are in the process of concluding a formal analysis of eCSC with the World Health Organization and the Vision Loss Expert Group. eCSC results will be available on the repository in 2022.

Refractive error

Vision impairing refractive error is defined as presenting VA less than 6/12 improving to 6/12 with pinhole. Use of presenting VA accounts for the prevalence of uncorrected or undercorrected refractive error only.

Vision impairing refractive error prevalence (age-sex adjusted)

Female
Male
Total
Extrapolated magnitude
%
95% CI
Extrapolated magnitude
%
95% CI
Extrapolated magnitude
%
95% CI
Blind
0
0.0
0.0 - 0.0
0
0.0
0.0 - 0.0
0
0.0
0.0 - 0.0
Severe
0
0.0
0.0 - 0.0
0
0.0
0.0 - 0.0
0
0.0
0.0 - 0.0
Moderate
9 066
1.2
0.5 - 1.9
3 322
0.5
0.0 - 0.9
12 388
0.9
0.4 - 1.3
Mild
38 949
5.3
3.9 - 6.7
31 669
4.5
3.0 - 6.1
70 618
4.9
3.8 - 6.1

Effective refractive error coverage (eREC) (age-sex adjusted)

The RAAB research team are in the process of concluding a formal analysis of eREC with the World Health Organization and the Vision Loss Expert Group. eREC results will be available on the repository in 2022.

Notes

Vision impairment categories defined according to WHO thresholds using presenting visual acuity in the better eye.

All prevalence and coverage estimates are adjusted to the age and gender distribution of the population 50 years and older in the survey area.

All 95% confidence intervals adjusted to account for the cluster design of the survey.