Indonesia, North Sumatra (2016)

Indonesia, 2016
North Sumatra
Principal Investigator
Lutfah Rif'ati
Trainer
Nina Ratnaningsih
Sample size
2950
Response rate
98.9%
RAAB version
RAAB6
Diabetic retinopathy
No
Disability module
No

Vision impairment

Prevalence (age-sex adjusted)

Female
Male
Total
Extrapolated magnitude
%
95% CI
Extrapolated magnitude
%
95% CI
Extrapolated magnitude
%
95% CI
Blind
22 079
1.8
1.0 - 2.7
13 524
1.3
0.5 - 2.0
35 603
1.6
0.9 - 2.2
Severe
25 956
2.2
1.4 - 2.9
15 500
1.4
0.7 - 2.2
41 456
1.8
1.2 - 2.4
Moderate
117 186
9.8
8.0 - 11.6
78 239
7.3
5.3 - 9.3
195 425
8.6
7.1 - 10.2
Mild
163 698
13.7
11.5 - 15.9
99 465
9.3
7.2 - 11.3
263 163
11.6
9.9 - 13.4

Cataract

Operable cataract prevalence (age-sex adjusted)

Female
Male
Total
Extrapolated magnitude
%
95% CI
Extrapolated magnitude
%
95% CI
Extrapolated magnitude
%
95% CI
<3/60
9 917
0.8
0.3 - 1.4
5 252
0.5
0.1 - 0.9
15 169
0.7
0.3 - 1.1
<6/60
21 777
1.8
1.1 - 2.6
8 643
0.8
0.3 - 1.3
30 420
1.3
0.8 - 1.9
<6/18
76 853
6.4
4.8 - 8.1
35 387
3.3
2.1 - 4.5
112 240
5.0
3.7 - 6.2
<6/12
141 815
11.9
9.7 - 14.0
85 773
8.0
5.7 - 10.3
227 588
10.0
8.2 - 11.9

Cataract surgical coverage (CSC) (age-sex adjusted)

Female
Male
Total
%
95% CI
%
95% CI
%
95% CI
CSC<3/60
-
65.2
45.3 - 85.2
-
71.1
53.8 - 53.8
-
67.5
50.6 - 79.8
CSC<6/60
-
47.8
31.6 - 64.1
-
61.3
44.2 - 78.4
-
52.6
34.4 - 61.3
CSC<6/18
-
21.3
11.7 - 30.9
-
29.1
17.8 - 40.4
-
23.9
13.0 - 29.6
CSC<6/12
-
13.9
8.0 - 19.8
-
14.5
7.7 - 21.3
-
14.1
8.9 - 18.9

Effective cataract surgical coverage (eCSC) (age-sex adjusted)

The RAAB research team are in the process of concluding a formal analysis of eCSC with the World Health Organization and the Vision Loss Expert Group. eCSC results will be available on the repository in 2022.

Refractive error

Vision impairing refractive error is defined as presenting VA less than 6/12 improving to 6/12 with pinhole. Use of presenting VA accounts for the prevalence of uncorrected or undercorrected refractive error only.

Vision impairing refractive error prevalence (age-sex adjusted)

Female
Male
Total
Extrapolated magnitude
%
95% CI
Extrapolated magnitude
%
95% CI
Extrapolated magnitude
%
95% CI
Blind
0
0.0
0.0 - 0.0
0
0.0
0.0 - 0.0
0
0.0
0.0 - 0.0
Severe
715
0.1
0.0 - 0.2
992
0.1
0.0 - 0.3
1 707
0.1
0.0 - 0.2
Moderate
18 538
1.6
1.0 - 2.1
19 358
1.8
1.0 - 2.6
37 896
1.7
1.1 - 2.2
Mild
101 327
8.5
6.8 - 10.2
67 241
6.3
4.6 - 7.9
168 568
7.4
6.1 - 8.8

Effective refractive error coverage (eREC) (age-sex adjusted)

The RAAB research team are in the process of concluding a formal analysis of eREC with the World Health Organization and the Vision Loss Expert Group. eREC results will be available on the repository in 2022.

Notes

Vision impairment categories defined according to WHO thresholds using presenting visual acuity in the better eye.

All prevalence and coverage estimates are adjusted to the age and gender distribution of the population 50 years and older in the survey area.

All 95% confidence intervals adjusted to account for the cluster design of the survey.